Three Main Phases of Human Resources Management
Proper functioning of human resource management follows some phases. These Three Main Phases of Human Resources Management are classified into three types. These steps are described in the following paragraphs:
01) Pre-hiring phase:
The major HRM activities in the pre-hiring phase are human resource planning and job analysis. These activities from the cornerstone upon which other HRM practices are built. Human resource planning helps managers to anticipate and meet changing needs related to the acquisition, deployment, and utilization of employees in an organization. The organization first maps out an overall plan called a strategic plan. Then, through demand and supply forecasting it estimates the number and types of employees needed to successfully carry out its overall plan. Such information enables a firm to plan its recruitment, selection, and training strategies.
For example, assume that a firms HR plan estimates that 15 additional engineers will be needed for the next year. The firm typically hires recent engineering graduates to fill such positions. Because these Majors are in high demand & the firm decides to begin its campus recruiting early in the academic year, before other companies can “snatch away” the best candidates.
Job analysis is the systematic process used for gathering, analyzing, and documenting information about particular jobs. The analysis specifies what each worker does, the work. Conditions and the worker qualifications necessary to perform the job successfully.
The job analysis information is used to plan and coordinate nearly all HRM practices, including:
- Determining-job qualifications for .recruitment purposes
- Selecting the most appropriate selection techniques
- Designing training programs
- Developing performance appraisal rating forms
- Helping to finalize pay rates
- Setting performance standards for productivity improvement programs
For example, an organization may decide to use a mechanical aptitude test to screen applicants because a Job analysis indicated that mechanical aptitude is an important job skill. Or, a firm may raise the pay of one of its employees because a job analysis indicated that the nature of work recently changed and is now more demanding.
The hiring phase of human resource management is also called staffing. Staffing involves policies and procedures used by organizations to recruit and select employees. Organizations use recruitment to locate and attract job applicants for particular positions. They may recruit candidates internally. (i.e., recruit current employees seeking to advance or change jobs) or externally. The aim of recruitment practices is to identify a suitable pool of applicants quickly, cost-efficiently, and legally. Selection involves assessing and choosing among the job candidates. To be effective, .selection processes must be both legal and technically sound, .accurately thatching people’s skills with available positions.
Training and development are planned, learning experiences that teach workers how to perform their current or future jobs effectively. Training focuses on present jobs, while developments prepare employees for possible future jobs. Training and development practices are designed to improve organizational performance by enhancing the knowledge and skills level of employees. A firm must first determine its training needs and then select/develop training programs to meet these needs. It also must take steps to ensure that workers apply what they have learned on the job.
Through the performance appraisal process, organizations measure the adequacy of their employees’, job performances and communicate these evaluations to them. One aim of appraisal systems is to motivate employees to continue appropriate behavior and correct inappropriate ones. Management also may use performance appraisal as tool for making HRM related decisions, such as promotions, demotion, discharge, and pay rates.
Compensation entails pay and benefits. Pay refer to the wage or salary that the employees earn, while benefits are a form of compensation provided to employees in addition to their pay, such as health insurance or employee discount. The aim of compensation practices is to help the organization establish and maintain a competent and loyal workforce at an affordable cost.
Productivity improvement programs enhance job behavior to rewards. Rewards may be financial (e.g., bonuses and pay raises) or non-financial (e.g., improved job. satisfaction). Such programs are used to motivate employees to engage in appropriate job behaviors, namely those that help the organization meet its goals.